localhost:631open http://localhost:631 ➚
"localhost:631" refers to a specific address and port number on a computer. In this context, "localhost" is the standard hostname that refers to the current device used to access it. It is used to access the network services that are running on the host via the loopback network interface. In other words, it's a way to access the network services running on your own computer.
The number "631" is the port number. Port numbers are used by network protocols, such as TCP and UDP, to differentiate between different services running on the same device. In this case, port 631 is typically associated with the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP). IPP is a network protocol for managing print jobs and print queues, and it is used by the Common UNIX Printing System (CUPS) on Unix-based systems, including Linux and macOS.
So, "localhost:631" is typically used to access the CUPS web interface on your local machine for managing printers and print jobs. To access the CUPS web interface, you would open a web browser and type "http://localhost:631" into the address bar.
What is Internet Printing Protocol (IPP)
The Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) is a network protocol designed for managing print jobs and print queues over the Internet. It enables communication between clients (devices like computers and smartphones) and printers or print servers. Developed by the Printer Working Group (PWG), IPP has been standardized as an application-level protocol by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in several RFC documents, including RFC 2910 and RFC 2911.
The main goal of IPP is to provide a standardized, platform-independent way of controlling printers and managing print jobs over a network. It supports features such as:
- Printer discovery: IPP helps clients discover available printers on the network.
- Print job submission: Clients can submit print jobs to printers using IPP.
- Querying printer capabilities: IPP allows clients to query printers for their capabilities, such as supported paper sizes and print resolutions.
- Print job monitoring and control: Users can monitor the status of their print jobs and control them, such as canceling or holding a print job.
- Printer management: IPP enables administrators to manage printers remotely, including configuring settings, monitoring printer status, and viewing usage statistics.
IPP uses HTTP as its transport protocol, which means it benefits from the widely supported and well-understood infrastructure of the World Wide Web. The protocol defines a set of operations and attributes that are encoded in HTTP requests and responses, typically using the Internet Media Type "application/ipp" for the message body.
The Common Unix Printing System (CUPS) is a widely used implementation of IPP for Unix-based systems, including Linux and macOS. In these systems, you can access the CUPS web interface for managing printers and print jobs by visiting "http://localhost:631" in a web browser. Other operating systems, like Windows, also support IPP to enable network-based printing.
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localhost:81 ⟷ localhost:631 ⟷ localhost:9000 ⟷ localhost:4000 ⟷ localhost:11501 ⟷ localhost:8001 ⟷ localhost:3306
localhost/dashboard ⟷ localhost/wordpress ⟷ localhost/wordpress/wp-admin ⟷ http://localhost/mysql